Python Basics

Python is a high-level, interpreted programming language known for its readability and versatility. It’s used in various domains, such as web development, data analysis, artificial intelligence, scientific computing, and more.

Python Basics

1. Variables and Data Types

Python supports numerous data types, such as integers, float (decimal numbers), string (text), list (ordered collection of items), tuple (immutable ordered collection of items), and dictionary (unordered collection of items).

a = 10  # Integer
b = 5.5  # Float
c = "Hello"  # String
d = [1, 2, 3]  # List
e = (1, 2, 3)  # Tuple
f = {"key": "value"}  # Dictionary

2. Conditionals

Use if, elif, and else to control the flow of execution based on conditions.

x = 10
if x > 5:
    print("x is greater than 5")
elif x == 5:
    print("x is equal to 5")
    print("x is less than 5")

3. Loops

  • For Loop: Iterates over a sequence (list, tuple, string) or other iterable objects.
for i in range(5):  # 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
  • While Loop: Repeats a statement or group of statements while a given condition is True.
count = 0
while count < 5:
    count += 1

4. Functions

Use def to define a function, which can take arguments and optionally return a value.

def greet(name):
    return "Hello, " + name + "!"


5. Classes/Objects

Python is an object-oriented language. It uses classes for encapsulating data and behavior.

class Dog:
    def __init__(self, name): = name

    def bark(self):
        return "Woof!"

my_dog = Dog("Buddy")
print(my_dog.bark())  # Output: Woof!

6. Importing Modules

Use import to bring in Python modules and use their functionalities.

import math

result = math.sqrt(25)  # 5.0

Python Coding Guidelines

  • Indentation: Python uses whitespace (typically 4 spaces) to define scope, such as the scope of loops, functions, and classes.
  • Comments: Use # for single-line comments and ''' or """ for multi-line comments.
  • Naming Conventions: Use meaningful names for variables, functions, and classes (snake_case for variables and functions, CamelCase for classes).

Python Development Environment

  • Install Python: Download and install Python from the official site.
  • IDE: Choose an Integrated Development Environment (IDE), such as PyCharm, VSCode, or Jupyter Notebook, for writing your code.

Running a Python Script

Save your code with a .py extension and run it using the Python interpreter from the command line:


Python’s simplicity and readability make it a great language for beginners, while its powerful libraries and frameworks make it crucial for advanced users in various fields. These basics should help you get started with your Python journey!

Certainly, let’s delve deeper into the basics of Python programming.

1. Variables and Data Types

Variables are containers for storing data values. Python has various data types:

  • Integers: Whole numbers without a fractional component.
  • Float: Numbers with a decimal component.
  • String: A sequence of characters enclosed within single (‘ ‘), double (” “), or triple (”’ ”’ or “”” “””) quotes.
  • Boolean: Represents true or false values.
  • List: Ordered, mutable collection of elements.
  • Tuple: Ordered, immutable collection of elements.
  • Dictionary: Unordered collection of data in a key:value pair form.
  • Set: Unordered collection of unique elements.

2. Operators

Operators are symbols that perform operations on variables and values:

  • Arithmetic Operators: +, -, *, /, //, %, **
  • Comparison Operators: ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=
  • Logical Operators: and, or, not
  • Assignment Operators: =, +=, -=, *=, /=, etc.
  • Bitwise Operators: &, |, ^, ~, <<, >>

3. Control Structures

  • If…Else: Allows conditional execution of code.
if condition:
    # code to execute if condition is True
elif another_condition:
    # code to execute if another_condition is True
    # code to execute if no conditions above are True
  • Loops:
  • For Loop: Iterates over a sequence.
  for variable in sequence:
      # code to execute
  • While Loop: Repeats code while a condition is True.
  while condition:
      # code to execute

4. Functions

Functions are blocks of code that are designed to do one job. When you want to perform a particular task, you define a function to accomplish that task.

def function_name(parameters):
    # code
    return output

5. Classes and Objects

Python is an object-oriented language.

  • Classes: Blueprints for creating objects (data structures).
class ClassName:
    def __init__(self, parameters):
        # constructor code
    def method_name(self, parameters):
        # code
  • Objects: Instances of classes.
object_name = ClassName(parameters)

6. File Handling

Python can interact with file systems, allowing it to read from and write to files:

with open('file.txt', 'r') as file:
    content =

with open('file.txt', 'w') as file:
    file.write('Hello, World!')

7. Error and Exception Handling

Use try and except blocks to handle exceptions gracefully.

    # code that might raise an exception
except ExceptionType as e:
    # code to handle the exception
    # code to execute regardless of whether an exception was raised or not

8. Modules and Packages

  • Modules: A module is a file containing Python definitions and statements. The file name is the module name with the suffix .py added.
  • Packages: A package is a way of organizing related Python modules into a directory hierarchy.

9. Libraries

Python has a vast standard library and numerous third-party libraries, which can be installed using a package manager like pip.

pip install library_name

10. Virtual Environments

Virtual environments allow you to manage project-specific dependencies and Python versions:

python -m venv myenv  # create virtual environment
source myenv/bin/activate  # activate virtual environment (Linux/macOS)
myenv\Scripts\activate  # activate virtual environment (Windows)

This is a more detailed overview of Python’s basics, providing a solid foundation for beginning Python development. If you have any specific questions or need further details about a particular topic, feel free to ask!

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